After years of research and suppositions, scientists finally discover what the universe is made of. The finding was made possible with the help of the recent sky mappings that the XMM-Newton X-ray observatory has captured.
No matter how many studies researchers conduct on the universe and its structure, it is impossible to determine the true composition of the dark matter. The XMM-Newton X-ray observatory of the European Space Agency has come across an interesting discovery: they have spotted three interesting space formations within one of the largest galaxy clusters in the Universe.
Additional studies have revealed that these areas are made out of galaxies, dark matter and gas. Together they are floating towards this vast galaxy proving scientists that the cosmic web contains gas.
This special cluster of special cosmic elements has been named the Pandora Cluster, but scientifically, it is called Abell 2744. The mere observation of gas presence within the cosmic structures was not enough for scientists. Consequently, they have used the newly retrieved data to look at the structure of the cosmic web holding its constitutive elements.
The newly retrieved data on the density and temperature of the gas has been later on compared with the results of the previous tests. Scientists have discovered that filaments are colder in those regions where gas temperature only rises to 10-20 million degrees Celsius. The hottest temperatures are registered at the core of the galaxy where gas is 100 million degrees Celsius hot.
Yet, scientists have reasons to believe that filaments can be even hotter. There could be cosmic regions where filaments reach millions of degree Celsius.
These observations have only been made in relation to the gas structures. Astronomers plan to further study the structure and the temperature levels of the dark matter because they have reasons to believe that these have different characteristics.
Dominique Eckert, the lead author of the current study, is very pleased with the observations of the current research. However, he thinks the validation of gas and cosmic web presence cannot explain what the universe is made of. Future studies will have to replicate similar matter analyses on a larger scale to understand how vast the cosmic web is and how it functions.
More discoveries will probably be made when ESA’s Athena X-ray telescope will become functional in 2028. This telescope is much more sensitive and it will enable researchers to observe even the remotest elements in space.
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